LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2023-07-19T22:16:51+03:00 LSSD Submission Acknowledgement Open Journal Systems <h2>About the Journal</h2> <p><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #333333;">Life Science and Sustainable Development</strong><span style="color: #333333;"> is an Open Access Journal owned by Lovrin Agricultural Research and Development Station, which offers support for quick publication of original and review articles in extenso and summary.</span></p> <p>Our Journal, <strong>Life Science and Sustainable Development</strong> includes original papers (abstract and full text) and reviews on Agriculture in general from all around the world.</p> <p>Abbreviation: LSSD</p> <p>ISSN 2734 - 5068</p> <p>ISSN-L 2734 - 5068</p> <p>Country of Publication: Romania</p> <p>Publisher: Lovrin, Romania</p> <p>Language: English</p> <p>Number of issues/year: 2</p> <p>Papers will be published in the <strong>Life Science and Sustainable Development</strong> in electronic format.</p> <p> </p> EXTREME CLIMATIC PHENOMENA AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE STRUCTURE OF WINE GRAPES IN MINIS-MADERAT VINEYARD 2023-07-19T15:06:33+03:00 Robert-Traian HEIZER <p><em>The most frequent extreme climatic phenomena in the Minis-Maderat Vineyard are hail and drought. In the last 10 years, the period of extreme drought has increased from 2-3 to over 7 weeks, in the months of June-July-August, when the grapevine has the greatest need for water, in the phenophases of berry growth, bunch compaction and véraison. The mechanical analysis of the grapes for wine grape varieties from Podgoria Miniș-Măderat reveals this aspect in the composition of their structure.</em></p> 2023-07-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CASE STUDY: ROMANIAN VERSUS INTERNATIONAL GRAPEVINE VARIETIES AUTHORIZED IN 2021 FOR PDO WINES IN WEST ROMANIA 2023-07-19T15:21:04+03:00 Robert T. HEIZER Daniela DOBROMIR Mirela G. HEIZER <p><em>This paper represents a not at all gratifying perspective for the future and for the chance of viticulture and vinification in western Romania and, in extenso, in the whole country, seen through the prism of a chaotic choice of the structure of varieties from vineyards destined to obtain wines with PDO = protected designation of origin, established through reconversion / restructuring programs supported with European structural funds. The zoning of the grapevine varieties, legislated in Romania, represented a small directing lever towards high-performance plantations, but it was far from becoming a guideline. Research in recent years, in conjunction with regional and global climate changes, demonstrates the inefficiency of choosing varieties by empirical methods, by market requirements at a given time, by fashion or commercial recommendations. The share of local wine grape varieties and their presence in the wine market in their most elaborate form, is far from competitive, which brings many questions for future planning, in the limited conditions, given by European Commission politics, for increasing the grapevines growing area in Romania.</em></p> 2023-07-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS REGARDING THE OPTIMAL SEED RATES OF SOME WINTER WHEAT VARIETIES 2023-07-19T15:35:31+03:00 Gheorghe BUNTA Corina COSMA <p><em>Before to extended on large surfaces, the new wheat varieties need to be examinate to finding their requirements regarding technological components, like planting density. In accord with this demand, during the agricultural year 2021 – 2022 were tested at Oradea, in north-west of Romania, our news registered varieties Dacic and Biharia, beside of other 23 Romanian or foreign varieties of wheat, at seven seeding rates:200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800 seeds/m<sup>2</sup>. Statistical processing of the yield and wheat features were dan by usual correlation (Pearson), Spearman rank correlations, the calculations of linear and quadratic equations of correlations between grain yield and seeding rate and calculation of linear, quadratic, exponential and logarithmic trend between the same characters, the trend of the most significant determination coefficient being utilised in graphical transpositions. Some genotypes (Voinic, Bogdana, Dacic, Cezara and Crisana) have their best ranks of yield at low densities while other (Gabrio, Consecvent, Anapurna and Abundent) at the greatest ones. Taking in consideration the average of ranks, the genotype Consecvent has the best average position, followed by Gabrio, Abundent, Bogdana and Voinic. These five genotypes have a good capability to adjust their yields components to vary densities of plants. At low densities (200, 300, 400 and 500 germinal seeds/m<sup>2</sup>), the genotypes yield ranks are comparable but at high densities (more than six hundred seeds/m<sup>2</sup>), the ranks are stronger effected by density. Every genotype has an optimum seed density, depending on its capacity to tolerate or no high density: Crisana- 500 seed/m<sup>2</sup>, Biharia- 600 seed/m<sup>2</sup>, Consecvent- 600 to 700 seed/m<sup>2</sup>, Anapurna- 800 seed/m<sup>2</sup>, etc. Some varieties, like Voinic, have a pour response to seeding rate, they yielded well even at small density, being able to compensate the reduced density by tillering capacity, number of grains/spikes, better test weight and bigger grain size.</em></p> 2023-07-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SOIL SALINITY EFFECT ON SOYBEAN PLANT: A COMPREHENSIVE MORPHOPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY 2023-07-19T15:47:33+03:00 Md. Rasadul ISLAM Akida JAHAN JAHAN Md. Najmol HOQUE <p><em>Soil salinity is a big barrier to soybean production in many areas of the world. The world’s salinity-affected areas are rising year after year. Therefore, the salinity stress events tend to become more severe in soybean production, thereby, the authors introduced a critical review of the literature to understand the changes in the different traits exposed to salinity stress and their mitigation strategies for the salinity stress of soybean cultivation.&nbsp;Under salinity stress, the soybean plant showed various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and structural changes. Results indicated that salinity&nbsp;stress adversely affects the soybean emergence, nodulation, growth and development, seed quality, oil and protein content of seed as well as yield. Effective salinity management strategies in soybean cultivation are the use of different exogenous components, organic and nano-fertilizers, breeding approaches and application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Further studies require on the underlying screening of salt-resistant soybean genotypes and their use in molecular breeding. </em></p> 2023-07-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT LEAF AREA IN GRASS CEREALS IN RELATION TO LEAF PARAMETERS; CASE STUDY IN WHEAT 2023-07-19T16:45:33+03:00 Alina Laura AGAPIE Florin SALA <p><em>The study determined values of the correction factor (CF) for four wheat cultivars, in order to determine with greater accuracy the leaf surface by the non-destructive method, based on leaf parameters (length, width). The wheat cultivars Ciprian, Dacic, Glosa and Padureni were considered in the study. The plant samples came from cultures made within SCDA Lovrin, Romania. For each wheat cultivar, 100 leaf samples were taken (flag leaf). The dimensions of the leaves (length – L, width – w) were obtained by measurement (±0.5 mm). By scanning, the scanned leaf surface (SLA) was obtained. The values of the correction factor were obtained by calculation (CF=0.79 for Ciprian cultivar; CF=0.80 for Dacic cultivar, CF=0.78 for Glosa cultivar; CF=0.79 for the Padureni cultivar).</em><em> The leaf area was calculated with high precision for each wheat cultivar, as a relationship between L, w and CF (RMSEP=1.32042 for Ciprian cultivar; RMSEP=2.41317 for Dacic cultivar; RMSEP=2.21665 for Glosa cultivar; RMSEP=1.30141 for Padureni cultivar). The fit between MLA (measured leaf area) and SLA (scanned leaf area) was described by linear equations, with the highest precision in the case of the Padureni wheat cultivat (R<sup>2</sup>= 0.933), a cultivar in whose case the RMSEP value also confirmed the higher precision for calculating the MLA. The correlation analysis on the series of data related to each wheat cultivar studied, highlighted various levels of correlations, in conditions of statistical safety. The correlation analysis on the entire data series (400 values) highlighted very strong negative correlations between the calculated ratios (r=-0.977 between L/w and w/L) and very strong positive correlations at the leaf area level (r=0.920 between MLA and SLA). High variability was recorded in the case of MLA for the Ciprian cultivar (CV<sub>MLA</sub>=19.61861) and for the Padureni cultivar (CV<sub>MLA</sub>=27.07106), in the case of SLA for the Dacic cultivar (CV<sub>SLA</sub>=22.72838), and Glosa cultivar (CV<sub>SLA</sub>=18.52030).</em></p> 2023-07-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT VARIATION OF SOME BIOMETRIC PARAMETERS IN CORN EARS IN RELATION TO PLANT STATUS 2023-07-19T16:54:13+03:00 Alexandru KONYA Mihai HERBEI Florin SALA <p><em>The study evaluated the variability of some plants and ears parameters in maize, and the possibility of estimating the productivity elements at the ear level depending on the plants status parameters. The study was done in the area of Sanmihaiu Roman, Timis County, Romania. The maize hybrid DKC 5075 was cultivated in a non-irrigated system, with an appropriate culture technology. The number of leaves during the vegetation period (Ln-v), the number of leaves at harvest (Ln-h) was evaluated, and the height of the plants (Ph) and the diameter of the plant stem (Pd) were also determined. Determinations were made regarding the length of the ear (El), the diameter of the ear (Ed), the weight of the ear (Ew) and the number of grains per ear (Gn). In the climatic conditions specific to the agricultural year 2021 - 2022, the variability recorded, based on the coefficient of variation (CV) at the level of the studied parameters, was: CV<sub>Ph</sub>=30.4824 for plant height; CV<sub>Pd</sub>=9.8659 for the diameter of the plant stem; CV<sub>Ln-v</sub>=13.2348 for the number of leaves in vegetation; CV<sub>Ln-v</sub>=23.1179 for the number of leaves at harvest; CV<sub>El</sub>=12.3450 for the length of the ear; CV<sub>Ed</sub>=10.9924 for the diameter of the ear; CV<sub>Ew</sub>=23.5464 for the weight of the ear; CV<sub>Gn</sub>=17.5084 for the number of grains per ear. Different correlations were recorded between parameters studied at the level of plants and maize ears. Interdependence relationships between the studied parameters were described by linear equations (e.g. Ew in relation to Ed) and polynomial equations (e.g. Ew in relation to Gn). The Ew variation was estimated in relation to Ph and Ln-v according to R<sup>2</sup>=0.713 (Multiple R=0.845), and in relation to Pd and Ln-v according to R<sup>2</sup>=0.730 (Multiple R=0.854). The variation of Gn was estimated in relation to Ph and Ln-v according to R<sup>2</sup>=0.856 (Multiple R=0.925). 3D models and as isoquants were obtained to graphically described the variation of the weight of the ears (Ew) and the number of grains (Gn) in relation to the considered parameters of the plants.</em></p> 2023-07-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PRELIMINARY RESEARCH ON THE PLANT STATUS OF SEVERAL WHEAT VARIETIES IN RELATION TO NITROGEN MINERAL FERTILIZATION 2023-07-19T20:40:48+03:00 Cosmin GHERBAN Florin SALA <p><em>The study evaluated the variation of plant height in relation to nitrogen fertilization, and took place within the Didactic and Experimental Resort (DER) of the University of Life Science "King Mihai I" from Timisoara. Six wheat varieties were studied, three with smaller height (C3 – Montecarlo, C4 – Venezio, C5 – Combin) and three with larger height (C1 – PG102, C2 – Falado, C6 – Pitar). Variable doses of nitrogen (ammonium nitrate) were applied in the range of 0-280 kg N a.s. ha<sup>-1</sup> (a.s. – active substance). In the experimental conditions (chernozem soil) and associated with the climatic conditions, according to the genetic specificity, the wheat varieties considered in the study used the applied fertilization in a different way. The height of the plants varied between 63.67±1.45 - 73.00±1.15 cm in the C1 variety; 62.33±0.88 - 73.67±2.33 cm for the C2 variety; 56.67±1.20 - 63.67±1.45 cm for the C3 variety; 54.00±2.08 - 62.67±3.18 cm for the C4 variety; 59.00±0.58 - 70.00±1.15 cm in the C5 ace; 67.33±1.76 - 77.67±1.20 cm for the C6 variety. The data series presented a normal distribution, and a close relationship with the N doses (r=0.994 for the variety C1; r=0.980 for the variety C2; r=0.984 for the variety C3; r=0.979 for the variety C4; r=0.985 for the variety C5; r=0.983 for the C6 variety). Based on the PCA, the wheat varieties studied were positioned specifically in relation to the applied fertilization; PC1 explained 92.498% of variance, and PC2 explained 4.134% of variance. The cluster analysis facilitated the clustering of variants from the perspective of wheat varieties (Coph.corr.=0.732) and from the perspective of fertilization (Coph.corr.=0.727). A ranking of the wheat varieties was obtained based on the plant height values (Ph), in response to the applied fertilization. The variation of Ph depending on the doses of N was described by polynomial equations of degree 2 and 3, under conditions of statistical safety.</em></p> 2023-07-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT VARIATION OF SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICES IN Tagetes erecta L. ACCORDING TO GROWTH SUBSTRATE 2023-07-19T20:50:00+03:00 Cristina URGHE Florin SALA <p><em>The study evaluated the influence of some growing substrates with variable content of compost from biodegradable waste on some physiological indices and growth parameters in the Tagetes erecta L. species. Different components were used to prepare the growth substrates, and depending on the weight of participation, the experimental variants resulted: V1 – garden soil 100%; V2 – compost 100%; V3 – compost 20% + peat 70% + vermiculite 10%; V4 – compost 30% + peat 60% + vermiculite 10%; V5 – compost 40% + peat 50% + vermiculite 10% (each variant in four repetitions). The biological material was represented by the Tagetes erecta L. species. The genotype "Tagetes erecta F1 Discovery Orange" was cultivated. Physiological indices and biometric parameters were evaluated, considered representative to quantify the plants response to growth substrates: plant height (Ph), shoots number (Sn), plant diameter (Pd) and shoots diameter (Sd). Several determinations were made during the vegetation period, at different times: April 22 (T1), May 22 (T2), June 18 (T3), July 21 (T4) and August 27 (T5). A strong, positive correlation was recorded between plant height (Ph) and shoot diameter (Sd), r=0.881<sup>***</sup>. Moderate correlations were recorded between plant height (Ph) and shoot number (Sn), r=0.715<sup>***</sup>, between plant height (Ph) and plant diameter (Pd), r=0.754<sup>***</sup>, between shoot number (Sn ) and shoot diameter (Sd), r=0.700<sup>***</sup>, and between plant diameter (Pd) and shoot diameter (Sd), r=0.781<sup>***</sup>. Weak correlation was recorded between shoot number (Sn) and plant diameter (Pd), r=0.669<sup>***</sup> (<sup>***</sup> p &lt; .001). In the PCA evaluation, PC1 explained 83.581% of variance, and PC2 explained 10.035% of variance. The cluster analysis, in relation to the important parameters considered (Ph, Pd) facilitated obtaining a dendrogram of association of the variants (Coph.corr.=0.881). The dynamics of the plants main parameters (Pd, Ph) on the experimental variants in relation to time, was described by polynomial equations of the 2nd degree under differentiated conditions of statistical certainty. A variable increase (D) in the evaluated parameters (positive and negative values) was recorded in the experimental variants (V2 – V5) in relation to the control variant (V1) and the moments of determination during the study period.</em></p> 2023-07-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS VARIABILITY OF THE A4-10 WINTER WHEAT LINE UNDER CURRENT CLIMATE CONDITIONS 2023-07-19T21:08:49+03:00 Nicolaie IONESCU Robert Marian GHEORGHE Mariana Cristina NICOLAE Oana Daniela BADEA Diana Maria POPESCU Cristina GHIORGHE <p><em>Currently, wheat plants know permanent evolutions of productive potential, of quality and of different resistances. The morphology of the plant in general, as well as the production elements: ears, grains and mass of a thousand grains, know true performances. The expression of the morphological characters of the plants is, however, closely related to the natural provision of water. Being a plant that capitalizes on moisture, frequently encounters periods of deficit, especially during the period of depositing dry matter in the grains. The intensity of these drought periods causes some decreases in the expression of plant and grain morphology respectively. In the present research, the appearance of the plants is compared together with the production elements obtained in three different years, namely one with a favorable background and two dry years. From the obtained data, the plants of line A.4-10 affected by drought had a smaller height by 3-7 cm and stem thicknesses reduced by 0.15 mm. The length of the ear was shorter by 1.5 cm, the number of grains in an ear was 18 less, and the mass of the grains was also reduced by 0.9 g. The mass of a thousand grains decreased by about 3 g. Correlations between characters were positive and statistically well supported. Straw length was negatively correlated with the other characters, possibly due to the reduced waist obtained in its breeding.</em></p> 2023-07-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH ON THE BEHAVIOR OF SOME WINTER BARLEY VARIETIES AND LINES IN PEDOCLIMATE CONDITIONS AT A.R.D.S. SECUIENI, DURING THE PERIOD 2019-2022 2023-07-19T21:18:06+03:00 Alexandra LEONTE Sabina PINTILIE Diana POPA Margareta NAIE <p><em>The main purpose of this study was to establish the adaptability of 10 Romanian winter barley varieties and lines (creations of the National Agricultural Research Development Institute Fundulea) in the pedoclimatic conditions of Central of Moldova. On average, in the three years of testing, the yields obtained by the winter barley varieties and lines, varied from 5484 kg &nbsp;ha<sup>-1</sup> at the DH-432-6 line to 7587 kg &nbsp;ha</em><sup>-1 </sup><em>at the F8-4-18 line. Compared to the yield recorded by the control variety, Dana (6221 kg &nbsp;ha</em><sup>-1</sup><em>), the Cardinal variety – 6838 kg &nbsp;ha</em><sup>-1 </sup><em>and the F8-4-18 line (7587 kg &nbsp;ha</em><sup>-1</sup><em>) obtained higher yields, these being statistically ensured and interpreted as significant respectively very significant. The varieties of barley studied (Univers, Andreea, Artemis, Gabriela) produced higher yields than the control, but had no statistical interpretation.</em></p> 2023-07-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT EVALUATION OF THE WHEAT CROP AND PRODUCTION ESTIMATION BASED ON REMOTE SENSING 2023-07-19T21:27:40+03:00 Mihai HERBEI Andreea Lidia JURJESCU Florin SALA <p><em>Based on remote sensing, the study analyzed the dynamics of a wheat crop using regression analysis to estimate production in relation to the NDMI, NDVI, MSAVI and NBR indices. The wheat crop considered in the study, was located in the area of Sacalaz, Timis county, Romania. Seven series of satellite images were taken, between February and June 2021. Based on the spectral information, the NDMI, NDVI, MSAVI and NBR indices were calculated and series of 595 values were obtained for each index. Very strong correlations were recorded between NBR and NDMI (r=0.999***), between MSAVI and NDVI (r=0.994***), between NBR and MSAVI (r=0.919**), between NDVI and NDMI ( r=0.911) and between NBR and NDVI (r=0.909**). Polynomial equations described the variation of NBR in relation to NDMI (R<sup>2</sup>=0.987), in relation to MSAVI (R<sup>2</sup>=0.794) and in relation to NDVI (R<sup>2</sup>=0.795). The variation of indices in relation to time, during the study period, was described by polynomial equations of the 2nd and 3rd degree, under statistical accuracy conditions (R<sup>2</sup>=0.854 for NDMI; R<sup>2</sup>=0.919 for NDVI; R<sup>2</sup>=0.956 for MSAVI, and R<sup>2</sup>=0.873 for NBR). Through the regression analysis, the wheat production was predicted, based on the calculated indices, and in different combinations of indices. The highest level of accuracy in the prediction of wheat production was recorded in the case of using the NDMI and NBR indices (p&lt;0.001, RMSPE=0.24847), followed by the analysis variant in which the NDVI and MSAVI indices were considered (p=0.0002, RMSEP=1.59084) and the analysis variant in which NDVI and NBR indices were used (p=0.00081, RMSEP=5.20218). Graphical models, in 3D format and in the form of isoquants, have described the variation of wheat production in relation to the NDMI, NDVI, MSAVI and NBR indices.</em></p> 2023-07-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME AROMATIC AND MEDICINAL PLANTS SPECIES BASED ON UAV IMAGES 2023-07-19T21:36:15+03:00 Ciprian BUZNA Marinel Nicolae HORABLAGA Luana SABO Andreea Lidia JURJESCU JURJESCU Florin SALA <p><em>The study used imaging analysis to characterize several species of aromatic and medicinal plants. UAV images were taken on five aromatic and medicinal plants species, cultivated by SCDA Lovrin, Timis county, Romania. The biological material was represented by Lavandulua x intermedia (Lavandin), P1; Hyssopus officinalis L., P2, P6; Origanum vulgare L., P3; Thymus serpyllum L., P4; Salvia officinalis L., P5 (P1 to P6 species code in the article). The images were analyzed (four repetitions) and the values of the RGB color parameters were obtained. The ANOVA test confirmed the presence of variance and the safety of the data (F&gt;F crit, p&lt;0.001; Alpha=0.001). The correlation analysis highlighted positive and negative correlations of different intensity levels between RGB parameters and calculated ratios (R/G, R/B, G/R, G/B, B/R, B/G). The variation of G in relation to R was described by a polynomial equation of degree 3 (R<sup>2</sup>=0.956), and the variation of B in relation to R was described by a polynomial equation of degree 2 (R<sup>2</sup>=0.736). High variability was recorded in the case of parameter B (CVB=23.44534), plant P3 (Origanum vulgare L.), and low variability was recorded in the case of color parameter G (CVG=2.66030), plant P2 (Hyssopus officinalis L.). Based on PCA, the distribution diagram of plant species in relation to RGB color parameters and calculated ratios, as biplot, was obtained. PC1 explained 66.037% of variance, and PC2 explained 33.095% of variance in relation to RGB, and PC1 explained 58.923% of variance, and PC2 explained 36.46% of variance in relation to the calculated ratios. The cluster analysis facilitated the grouping of plant species (P1 to P6) based on similarity in relation to the RGB color parameter values (Coph.corr. = 0.959).</em></p> 2023-07-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FLOOD RISK OF GRASSLANDS IN THE MOUNTAIN AREA OF WESTERN ROMANIA 2023-07-19T21:46:53+03:00 Margareta MAGUREANU Monica SFIRCOCI Loredana COPACEAN Luminiţa COJOCARIU <p><em>Floods, some of the most destructive natural phenomena, are occurring with increasing frequency, against the backdrop of climate change in recent years. Floods affect both built spaces and natural areas, implicitly the lands used as grasslands. In the context outlined above, the purpose of this study is to identify grasslands susceptible to being affected by floods and to group and map them according to the intensity of the manifestation of the flood risk. For the flood risk assessment, both for the entire analyzed area and for the grassland areas, in the GIS environment, seven factors (spatialized in raster format) determining the occurrence of floods were taken into account: land use, altitude, slope, drainage density, rainfall, distance to rivers and distance to roads. The flood vulnerability map of the analyzed territory, implicitly of the grassland areas, obtained by summing up and the weighted participation of the seven variables, was reclassified into five risk classes/areas: no risk or very low risk, low risk, medium risk, high risk and very high risk. It has been shown that the most vulnerable are the surfaces located on land with low slopes, located at low altitudes and in the proximity of water courses. Regarding the areas of grasslands, 50% fall into the classes without flood risk, with very low and low risk, 28% in the moderate risk class, 16% present a high risk and 6% of the grasslands are classified in the risk class very high to floods. From the point of view of practical applicability, it is important to identify and map the grasslands at risk of flooding, so that measures can be taken to mitigate the destructive effects.</em></p> 2023-07-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THE BEHAVIOR OF SOYBEAN VARIETIES AT DIFFERENT SOWING SEASON 2023-07-19T21:56:35+03:00 Alina SIMON Raluca REZI Camelia URDA Marius BARDAS Adrian CECLAN Florin RUSSU Felicia CHETAN Alin POPA <p><em>Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) it is one of the most important cultivated plants, and due to the beneficial properties it represents, it can bring considerable benefits to farm management. Thus, the growth and development of the soybean crop depends a lot on biotic and abiotic factors. In the present study, 5 soybean varieties created at SCDA Turda were analyzed during two experimental years 2021 and 2022 sown when in the soil are recorded for three consecutive days 5ºC and sowing season II - when the temperature of 7ºC is reached in the soil. Of the two experimental years, the year 2022 was less favorable for soybean cultivation compared to 2021. The obtained results were interpreted according to known statistical mathematical methods.</em></p> 2023-07-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THE CONTRIBUTION OF GRASSLANDS IN THE MANNER OF LAND USE FROM THE HILL AREA OF BANAT IN RELATION TO LIVESTOCK 2023-07-19T22:07:56+03:00 Luminita COJOCARIU Marinel HORABLAGA Cristian BOSTAN Ionel SAMFIRA Christianna ISTRATE-SCHILLER Dorin RECHITEAN Loredana COPACEAN <p><em>The meadows in the hill area of Banat can be defined as resources with multidimensional significance. In another context, grasslands can be considered one of the defining elements in livestock activities in rural areas. In this respect, the purpose of the research was to quantify the grassland resources in the area of interest and assess their potential in forage cover of local animals. The analysis of the area of interest was done by geospatial methods, applied with ArcGIS 10.4 software. Geospatial data, statistical and bibliographic data from the literature were used. The area of interest is characterized by complex and variable environmental conditions, which is also reflected in the use of the territory. In the five analyzed administrative units, grasslands occupy surfaces between 16.65% (UAT Balinţ) and 52.14% (UAT Secaş), these being interspersed with other categories of land use, respectively with arable land in the low areas and with forests in the areas located at higher altitudes. As far as animals are concerned, it was found that the largest herds were in ATU Brestovăţ, where per hectare of pasture has 0.72 LSU. Through the economic benefits offered, the meadows in the analyzed hill area constitute important natural resources for local and regional communities.</em></p> 2023-07-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT