LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT http://lssd-journal.com/index.php/lssd <h2>About the Journal</h2> <p><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #333333;">Life Science and Sustainable Development</strong><span style="color: #333333;"> is an Open Access Journal owned by Lovrin Agricultural Research and Development Station, which offers support for quick publication of original and review articles in extenso and summary.</span></p> <p>Our Journal, <strong>Life Science and Sustainable Development</strong> includes original papers (abstract and full text) and reviews on Agriculture in general from all around the world.</p> <p>Abbreviation: LSSD</p> <p>ISSN 2734 - 5068</p> <p>ISSN-L 2734 - 5068</p> <p>Country of Publication: Romania</p> <p>Publisher: Lovrin, Romania</p> <p>Language: English</p> <p>Number of issues/year: 2</p> <p>Papers will be published in the <strong>Life Science and Sustainable Development</strong> in electronic format.</p> <p> </p> Lovrin Agricultural Research and Development Station en-US LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2734-5068 EVALUATION THE MICROELEMENTS AND HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN THE CONDITIONS OF SOME AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST LANDS http://lssd-journal.com/index.php/lssd/article/view/200 <p><em>The study analyzed and evaluated the content of some microelements and heavy metals in the conditions of two categories of agricultural and forest land. The study location was in the "Padurea Cenad" Protected Area and the bordering agricultural area, Timis County, Romania. Among microelements, the content of iron (Fe, ppm), manganese (Mn, ppm), copper (Cu, ppm) and zinc (Zn, ppm) was analyzed, and among heavy metals, the content of chromium (Cr, ppm), nickel (Ni, ppm) and lead (Pb, ppm) was analysed. The ANOVA test was used to quantify the statistical reliability of the data, and to evaluate the presence of variance in the data set (Alpha=0.001). The correlation level of the determined microelements and heavy metals was evaluated by correlation analysis (Pearson), and the statistical safety was evaluated based on p parameters (p &lt;0.05; p &lt;0.01; p &lt;0.001). Correlations of different intensity levels were recorded between the analyzed elements (eg r=0.914 between Fe and Cu; r=0.916 between Fe and Ni; r=0.935 between Mn and Zn; r=0.933 between Mn and Cr; r= 0.920 between Zn and Cr; r=0.990 between Ni and Pb; r=0.851 between Fe and Pb; r=-0.732 between Mn and Ni; r=-0.731 between Mn and Pb).</em> <em>A high level of variability was recorded in the case of Pb content (CV<sub>Pb</sub>=43.8455), and a low level of variability in the case of Mn content (CV<sub>Mn</sub>=8.1807). Intermediate values was recorded in the other cases, CV<sub>Cr</sub>=25.4583, CV<sub>Ni</sub>=23.9941, CV<sub>Cu</sub>=23.0055, and CV<sub>Fe</sub>=21.0282 respectively. According to PCA, PC1 explained 70.240% of variance, and PC2 explained 22.469% of variance. Separate positioning in relation to the content of microelements and heavy metals (as biplot) was found at CP1-A and CP2-F. Associated with the content of Mn, Zn and Cr (as biplot) CP2-A was positioned, and associated with Fe, Cu, Ni and Pb (as biplot) CP1-F was associated.</em></p> Simona ROSU Florin SALA Copyright (c) 2022 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 2 1 6 10.58509/lssd.v3i2.200 CHARACTERIZATION OF THE Hedera helix L. LEAVES GEOMETRY BASED ON SOME DIMENSIONAL PARAMETERS AND CALCULATED RATIOS http://lssd-journal.com/index.php/lssd/article/view/201 <p><em>The study analyzed leaves of ivy, Hedera helix L., in order to characterize the geometry of the leaves. The leaf samples were taken from the Protected Area "Padurea Cenad", Timis County, Romania. The dimensions of the leaves (L, w) were determined by measurement, with a precision of 0.5 mm. The leaves were scanned, 1:1 ratio. From the analysis of the leaf images, the perimeter (Per) and scanned leaf area (SLA) were determined. The correction factor (CF), specific to ivy leaves, was found (CF=0.69) for the purpose of use in non-destructive methods of measuring the leaf area (MLA) based on a general formula of the type MLA=L·w·CF. The fitting relationship between MLA and SLA was described by a linear equation, under statistical safety conditions (p&lt;0.001). Different ratios between leaf parameters were calculated in order to characterize the leaf geometry (L/w, Per/L, Per/w, SLA/L, SLA/w, SLA/Per, MLA/L, MLA/w). Different levels of correlation between basic leaf parameters, leaf surface and the calculated ratios were identified, with statistical certainty for most cases (p&lt;0.001). Both from the correlation analysis and from the regression analysis, a tighter relationship of MLA with foliar parameters (L, w) was found than in the case of SLA (based on r, R<sup>2</sup>, F test, and RMSEP values). From the analysis of the values obtained for the coefficient of variation (CV), the highest variability was found in the case of SLA (CV<sub>SLA</sub>=38.6726), followed by MLA (CV<sub>MLA</sub>=36.8300), and the lowest variability in the case of the ratio Per/w (CV<sub>Per/w</sub>=10.1515). The regression analysis facilitated the finding of some equations that described the variation of SLA and MLA with leaf parameters (L, w, Per) in conditions of statistical safety (p&lt;0.001). 3D graphic models and in the form of isoquants were also generated, which represented the MLA variation in relation to the dimensional parameters of the ivy leaves studied.</em></p> Simona ROSU Florin SALA Copyright (c) 2022 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 2 7 16 10.58509/lssd.v3i2.201 VARIATION OF THE THOUSAND KERNEL WEIGHT IN WHEAT IN RELATION TO NPK MINERAL FERTILIZATION http://lssd-journal.com/index.php/lssd/article/view/202 <p><em>The study evaluated the variation of the thousand kernel weight (TKW), as an index of wheat quality, in relation to NPK mineral fertilization. The research took place at the Agricultural Research and Development Station Lovrin, Timis County, Romania. The Ciprian wheat variety was cultivated, on a chernozem type soil with medium fertility, under non-irrigated conditions. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers were applied. Nitrogen (N) was applied in three fertilization levels 0, 60 and 120 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>; phosphorus (P) was applied in two fertilization levels, 0 and 60 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>; potassium was applied in four fertilization levels, 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. From the combination of nutritional elements and applied doses, 16 experimental variants was evaluated, and the experiments were organized in four repetitions. The thousand kernel weight (TKW) was evaluated by measurement, with a laboratory balance with a precision of ±0.002 g. The ANOVA test confirmed the safety of the data and the presence of the variance in the data set (F=11.19783, Fcrit=2.80349, p&lt;0.001), under conditions of Alpha=0.001. Strong correlations were identified between TKW and P (r=0.833) and weak correlations between TKW and N (r=0.672). The variation of TKW in relation to the nutritional elements applied was described by different equations, under statistical safety conditions, in relation to the elements taken into analysis. The direct and interaction effect of NPK on TKW variation was observed, under conditions of R<sup>2</sup>=0.898, p&lt;0.001. 3D models and in the form of isoquants were generated, which graphically described the variation of TKW in relation to N (x-axis) and PK (y-axis). The cluster analysis facilitated the grouping of the experimental variants based on the Euclidean distances, in relation to the TKW values, under statistical safety conditions (Coph.corr.=0.806).</em></p> Alina Laura AGAPIE Florin SALA Copyright (c) 2022 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 2 17 24 10.58509/lssd.v3i2.202 NON-DESTRUCTIVE METHOD TO DETERMINING THE LEAF AREA IN HEMP, Cannabis sativa L. http://lssd-journal.com/index.php/lssd/article/view/203 <p><em>The evaluation of the leaf surface of hemp leaves, Cannabis sativa L., was the subject of the present study. The biological material was represented by the hemp variety 'Silvana', cultivated in SCDA Lovrin, Romania. Hemp leaves were taken randomly from mature plants. The leaves were herborized immediately after harvesting, in the field, in order to preserve the configuration of the leaves for analysis. Each leaf was scanned in a 1:1 ratio. The leaves were measured in terms of length (in the direction of the central leaflet) and width (maximum opening of the leaflets). For the measurement, a precision of ±0.5 mm was ensured. The scanned leaves were analyzed and the perimeter (Per) and scanned leaf area (SLA) were obtained. The correction factor (CF) was determined in order to be used for calculating the measured leaf area (MLA) by non-destructive methods. The value CF=0.27 was found, where the error as the difference between MLA and SLA (considered as a reference) was minimal (ME=0.87 cm<sup>2</sup>). The calculation of the RMSEP parameter confirmed the value of the correction factor (0.27), at which the RMSEP value was the minimum (RMSEP=9.74929). The fitting relationship between MLA and SLA was described by a linear equation, under conditions of R<sup>2</sup>=0.952, p&lt;0.001. Polynomial equations of the 3rd degree described the interdependence relationship between SLA and parameters L (R<sup>2</sup>=0.932) and w (R=0.964) of the leaves, and a polynomial equation of the 2nd degree described the relationship between SLA and Per (R<sup>2</sup>=0.995). Stronger correlation levels were identified between MLA and dimensional parameters of leaves (L, w; r=0.969 for MLA with L; r=0.974 for MLA with w), than between SLA and dimensional parameters of hemp leaves (r =0.927 for SLA with L; r=0.957 for SLA with w). This difference can be explained based on the methods of determining SLA (by scanning) and MLA (by measurement, based on L, w, CF), MLA having a direct relationship between L and w from the calculation relationship, a fact that confirms the usefulness of the work method.</em></p> Ciprian BUZNA Florin SALA Copyright (c) 2022 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 2 25 32 10.58509/lssd.v3i2.203 CHARACTERIZATION OF VEGETATION AND PREDICTION OF BIOMASS PRODUCTION IN SILAGE CORN CROP BASED ON SATELLITE IMAGES http://lssd-journal.com/index.php/lssd/article/view/204 <p><em>The study used methods based on remote sensing to analyze the dynamics of a silage corn crop and predict biomass production. The corn crop, the Micado hybrid, was organized within the Didactic and Experimental Station of the "King Mihai I" University of Life Sciences in Timisoara, under the specific conditions of the 2021-2022 agricultural year. The soil in the crop plot was of chernozem type, and the crop was in a non-irrigated system. To obtain the satellite data, the Sentinel 2 system was used. To characterize the plot and the crop of silage corn, 14 sets of images were taken, in the interval March - July 2022. From the analysis of the images, the spectral data were obtained, and based on the consecrated formulas MSAVI, NDMI, NDVI and NBR indexes were calculated. The ANOVA test confirmed the reliability of the data and the presence of variance in the data set (F&gt;Fcrit, p&lt;0.001, for Alpha=0.001). The level of correlations identified between the calculated indices was between r=0.967 (NBR with NDVI) and r=0.996 (NDVI with MSAVI). The variation of the NBR index, in relation to the other indices, was described by linear equations, in terms of statistical safety (R<sup>2</sup>=0.965, p&lt;0.001, in relation to MSAVI; R<sup>2</sup>=0.989, p&lt;0.001 in relation to NDMI; R<sup>2</sup>=0.934, p&lt;0.001 in relation to NDVI). The variation of indices in relation to time (t, days) during the study period was described by polynomial equations of the 3rd degree, in terms of statistical safety (R<sup>2</sup>=0.964 for MSAVI, R<sup>2</sup>=0.934 for NDMI, R<sup>2</sup>=0.941 for NDVI, and R<sup>2</sup>=0.961 for NBR). Regression analysis facilitated obtaining some equations, as models for predicting biomass production, under conditions of statistical safety. Based on the RMSEP parameter, it was found that the most reliable level of production prediction was obtained in the case of MSAVI and NDMI indices (RMSEP=0.05923).</em></p> <p> </p> Mihai Valentin HERBEI Cosmin Alin POPESCU Florin SALA Copyright (c) 2022 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 2 33 40 10.58509/lssd.v3i2.204 RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF SOWING DATE ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF MAIZE GRAIN AT R.D.S.C.B TG. MUREŞ http://lssd-journal.com/index.php/lssd/article/view/205 <p><em>Climate changes, more prominently visible in recent years, have alerted scientific research and, implicitly, the agricultural sector, which is most affected by these changes. Maize, is one of the most widespread field crops in our country, is also the most exposed to atmospheric and soil drought pronounced in the summer months. In this context, we initiated and tested the following experimental variants: earlier sowing, when in the soil, at a depth of 10 cm, 6 °C is achieved, sowing in the optimal period, at 10°C in the soil and sowing after the optimal period, following the evolution of both American and Romanian hybrids. The temperature evolution during the vegetation period of the crop, in the three years of the study, did not show significant differences, the influence on the change in the chemical composition of the grains was not obvious. The evolution of precipitation was fluctuating over months and years. The studies focused on the influence of the sowing season on the production and quality of corn grains in the area of the Research and Development Station for Cattle Breeding Târgu Mureș (RDSB Târgu Mureș). According to the data recorded in the 2018-2020 agricultural years, in the geopedological conditions of the Sângeorgiu de Mureș area, the studied hybrids responded well to early sowing, and the composition of the grains did not register substantial changes. The polyfactorial experiment was realized in the years 2018, 2019 and 2020 in the experimental field of the Plant Laboratory at RDSCB Târgu Mureș, according to the method of subdivided plots, the first factor the sowing date, with 3 gradations: the first sowing date, an early sowing was realised when 6ºC were recorded in the soil; the 2nd sowing date, an optimal sowing date when 10ºC was achieved in the soil and the 3rd sowing date, two weeks after the 2nd. Factor 2 is represented by the 4 tested corn hybrids.</em></p> Zsuzsa DOMOKOS Iustina LOBONTIU Marcel M. DUDA Ovidiu A. CECLAN Alina SIMON Copyright (c) 2022 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 2 41 48 10.58509/lssd.v3i2.205 EFFECT OF VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY REDUCING AGENTS ON THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF GREEN SYNTHESIZED SILVER NANOPARTICLES http://lssd-journal.com/index.php/lssd/article/view/206 <p><em>This study's objective was to assess the antioxidant properties of green produced silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using ecologically friendly reducing agents such as extracts of parsley (Petroselinum crispum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum). The ultrasonic-assisted extract of plant material served as a reducing agent for silver ions. Spectrophotometric assessment with a resolution of 1 nm and a wavelength range of 300-600 nm confirmed the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. On the basis of the observed Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) peak, the size of the AgNPs was determined using correlation equations. The hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the green nanoparticles that were synthesized. Cinnamon-derived silver nanoparticles displayed the highest scavenging activity. The results shown that environmentally friendly reducing agents can be employed to generate AgNPs, which can be utilized for antioxidant activity in several domains.</em></p> Andra-Sabina NECULAI-VALEANU Bianca-Maria MADESCU Ioana POROSNICU Adina-Mirela ARITON Copyright (c) 2022 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 2 49 53 10.58509/lssd.v3i2.206 THE INFLUENCE OF N AND P FERTILIZATION ON WINTER WHEAT YIELD http://lssd-journal.com/index.php/lssd/article/view/207 <p><em>Wheat is an essential crop for global food security,</em> <em>and for good development and to achieve satisfactory yields wheat needs favorable climatic conditions and adequate nutritional support. Was executed a bifactorial experience, of the AxB model A - phosphorus doses: P<sub>0</sub>; P<sub>40</sub>; P<sub>80</sub>; P<sub>120</sub>; P<sub>160</sub> and B - nitrogen doses: N<sub>0</sub>; N<sub>30</sub>; N<sub>60</sub>; N<sub>90</sub>; N<sub>120</sub>. The research carried out during the period 2020-2022 aimed to determine the optimal doses of the two nutrients for the autumn wheat crop in achieving the most efficient yields. Nitrogen is the factor with the greatest contribution to the formation of yield, an amount of 30 kg/ha s.a. can bring an increase in yield of 22%, growth that decreases with the additional application of others 30 kg/ha s.a. N. Phosphorus has a lower contribution to yield, as a unilateral factor, but it is important in plant nutrition, especially as a support for nitrogen.</em></p> Alina SIMON Florin RUSSU Marius BARDAS Felicia CHETAN Alin POPA Adrian CECLAN Copyright (c) 2022 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 2 54 59 10.58509/lssd.v3i2.207 THE INFLUENCE OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS, AND POTASSIUM FERTILIZERS ON SPRING BARLEY PRODUCTION AND HARVEST INCREASE http://lssd-journal.com/index.php/lssd/article/view/208 <p><em>The study was conducted in the experiments with long-term fertilizers in non-irrigation conditions in 2016 and 2021. The experiments were based on the two-factor subdivision method. Factor A doses of Nitrogen and Phosphorus N<sub>0</sub>P<sub>0</sub>, N<sub>60</sub>P<sub>40</sub>, N<sub>60</sub>P<sub>80</sub> and N<sub>120</sub>P<sub>80 </sub>respectively factor B Potassium doses K<sub>0</sub>, K<sub>40</sub>, K<sub>80</sub> and K<sub>120</sub>.</em> <em>Fertilizers were applied in the fall under the plow and in the spring. The average monthly temperature was higher in April, June and July for 2016 and June and July in 2021, compared to the 65-year average.</em> <em>The average values ​​of monthly precipitation were higher in 2016 during the vegetation period, and in 2021 they were higher in May and July, reduced in April and June compared to the average for 65 years. Following the obtained results, the production indicators were analyzed under the action of applying nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, respectively the obtained crop increase.</em></p> Adrian CECLAN Alina SIMON Florin RUSSU Marius BARDAS Felicia CHETAN Alin POPA Copyright (c) 2022 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 2 60 66 10.58509/lssd.v3i2.208 RESEARCHES ON THE INFLUENCE OF SOWING DENSITY ON SWEET LUPINE YIELD http://lssd-journal.com/index.php/lssd/article/view/209 <p><em>Lupine is cultivated on quite limited areas in Romania, the information about the culture of this legume is scarce and may be one of the reasons why lupine is not found in the crop structure. Through the experience established, during 2016-2017, at the Turda Agricultural Development Research Station (ARDS), located in the hilly area of ​​the Transylvanian Plain, the behavior of two varieties of white lupine (sweet) and the productivity of the plants under the influence of pedoclimatic conditions of the years 2016-2017 and some technological elements, in the present case - sowing density. Of the two varieties, the Romanian variety recorded a slightly higher yield than the variety of foreign origin. Lupine reacts positively to density of 15-22 pl/sqm, recording yields of 3828 kg/ha (22 pl/sqm) and 3223 kg/ha (15 pl/sqm), respectively. At the density of 11 pl/sqm the yield drops significantly. The rainfall deficit during the period of flowering-pod formation, calendrically the first half of June - the first half of August, also contributes to the decrease in yield.</em></p> Romina SABAU Felicia CHETAN Alina SIMON Marcel M. DUDA Copyright (c) 2022 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 2 67 71 10.58509/lssd.v3i2.209 THE SOYBEAN YIELD FORMATION IN THE PEDOCLIMATIC CONDITIONS FROM THE HILLY AREA OF THE TRANSYLVANIA PLAIN http://lssd-journal.com/index.php/lssd/article/view/210 <p><em>Soybean yield is determined by the interaction between genetic potential and environmental factors from the specific area, maturity group of the cultivar, plants height, disease and pest tolerance, culture technology, the type of soil its pH and fertility, etc. From the most important elements that compete for the formation of the crop we mention, plants height, the number of pods per plant, the number of grains in the pod, weight of grains per plant and the mass of a thousand kernels weights (TKW). Experience established at ARDS Turda, during 2020-2022, had as its main objective the study of the influence of technological factors (tillage systems) and pedoclimatic effects on some morpho-productive characters in soybeans.</em> <em>Climatic conditions during the experiment period, especially in the summer, they had a significant influence (positive or negative) on the studied elements. Between the two tillage systems (plow CS and chisel MTC) no significant differences were recorded regarding for most of the analyzed elements, except for the number of grains/plant (CS 87.9 și MTC 95.8).</em></p> Cornel CHETAN Felicia CHETAN Alina SIMON Florin RUSSU Ioana CRISAN Laura SOPTEREAN Adina TARAU Ana-Maria VALEAN Copyright (c) 2022 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 2 72 80 10.58509/lssd.v3i2.210 PHENOTYPIC RESPONSE OF SPRING WHEAT PERSPECTIVE LINE GENOTYPES TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS http://lssd-journal.com/index.php/lssd/article/view/211 <p><em>Spring wheat can be a viable alternative for satisfying the agri-food market. A performant genotype is characterized by high adaptability to different environmental conditions, high grain yield capacity, and yield stability. Three new spring wheat genotypes created at Agricultural Research and Development Station from Turda were tested in six different field conditions at the State Institute for Testing and Registration of Varieties Centres for plant physiological attributes, yield, and quality indices in comparation with Pădureni variety. Regarding the vegetation period, the new spring wheat varieties have the same growing season as the control genotype, with minor differences being observed for the generative stage. Thousand kernel weight has a large variability between test centers for all studied genotypes and in the hectolitre weight and grain yield. Based on the correlation coefficient the rainfalls from the second decade of May have a positive influence on the grain yield level, respectively the rainfalls from the second decade of June influenced negative hectolitre weight. Compared to the control genotype- Pădureni- the three new genotypes are productively superior with 21 to 33%. The quality indices for studied spring wheat genotypes are close to the control genotype which means that improvement of grain yield was achieved without sacrificing its quality.</em></p> Ionut RACZ Diana HIRISCAU Rozalia KADAR Ioana BERINDEAN Copyright (c) 2022 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 2 81 86 10.58509/lssd.v3i2.211 3D MODELING OF GRASSLANDS THROUGH GNSS TECHNOLOGY http://lssd-journal.com/index.php/lssd/article/view/212 <p><em>Monitoring and 3D modeling of an objective can only be done on the basis of high-precision topo-geodetic measurements, but also on the basis of UAV (drone) technologies, thus resulting in an overview of a certain study area. In this context, the present work aims to develop the creation of the 3D model of a grassland surface following a topographic survey by means of GNSS technology and specialized programs. This topographic survey was carried out with the Leica Viva GS07 GNSS equipment, an instrument that contains a wide range of applications. In this work, I used the Real Time Kinematic method to determine the points based on which I created the 3D model in AutoCAD using the TopoLT program. Because the data obtained is complex, in addition to 2D plans, we also have information that can be analyzed in 3D. For studies regarding the shape and the way of exploitation of the land, we created a digital model of the land which is the 3D digital representation of the respective surface. Based on the digital terrain model, we can easily visualize the relief of the grassland, in the present case the minimum altitude is 572.50 m, and the maximum altitude is 590.00 m, with a level difference of 17.5 m over the entire area. This digital terrain model can also be used to model water flow or other geomorphological processes that occur in the analyzed grassland (landslides, erosion, etc.). Multiple longitudinal or transversal profiles can be created over the entire surface to better observe the relief of the land.</em></p> Luminita COJOCARIU Loredana COPACEAN Mihai SIMON Adina HORABLAGA Cristian BOSTAN Cosmin POPESCU Nicolae Marinel HORABLAGA Copyright (c) 2022 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 2 87 93 10.58509/lssd.v3i2.212 ASSESSMENT OF STEM PRODUCTION IN SOME VARIETIES OF DIOECIOUS HEMP http://lssd-journal.com/index.php/lssd/article/view/213 <p><em>Varieties of dioecious hemp (Cannabis sativa L) created at ARDS Lovrin, Lovrin-110, Silvana, Armanca and Teodora, is characterized by the production of strains exceeding 10 t/ha, a fiber content of 25-30 % and can be extended in culture both in our country and in the European Union and not only, due to a low THC content below 0.2%. Dioecious hemp varieties exhibit a high ecological plasicity, when applying appropriate technology they achieve high yields. The researches carried out in the field of cultivation of dioecious hemp in Romania, for stems and seeds, have shown that it can be used in various industries (textile, cellulose, food, etc.) from where to result in high quality products.</em> <em>Following the study undertaken in the period 2021-2022, at ARDS Lovrin, it can be concluded that the variety Armanca has the highest yield of stems per hectare, with an increase of 2373.5 kg/ha, 29.1% more than the yield obtained by the control variety Silvana.</em></p> Anca Ofelia PANDA Cosmina Alina LEAHU Otilia COTUNA Busuioc VACARIU Lorena-Diana POPA Copyright (c) 2022 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 2 94 98 10.58509/lssd.v3i2.213 FUNCTIONAL RELATIONS BETWEEN MORPHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND YIELD VARIATION IN SOME FORMS OF BIRD'S-FOOT TREFOIL (Lotus corniculatus L.) http://lssd-journal.com/index.php/lssd/article/view/214 <p><em>Bird's-foot trefoil ensures the perennity of the meadows arranged vertically altitudinal and contributes to their sustainable use. For the establishment of sown meadows and oversowing of permanent grasslands, valuable Bird's-foot trefoil varieties are needed, adapted to the climatic conditions of the area and with high production potential. The present paper is part of such an approach and aims to evaluate a collection of 16 forms of Bird's-foot trefoil, representing a diverse range of agronomic types, in terms of morphological parameters regarding the production of seeds at the Bird's-foot trefoil and the yield of fresh fodder and dry matter.</em> <em>The research was conducted between 2020-2022 in the natural framework provided by the experimental field of ARDS Lovrin. The results of this study indicate that based on the functional relationships between morphological parameters, the 16 forms of Bird's-foot trefoil studied are divided into three large groups. For the production of the seeds, the forms of the Lv10, and Lv 15 Bird's-foot trefoil proved valuable, which showed a large number of generative shoots. In this regard, these forms of Bird's-foot trefoil can be tested alongside the Lv13 and LV8 genotypes. The highest yield was registered in the genotype Lv1 Bird's-foot trefoil, which achieved a fresh fodder yield of 19 t.ha-1 and a production of 4.39 t.ha<sup>-1</sup> dry matter, highly above the average of the experiment. Value for selection shows six more genotypes of Bird's-foot trefoil that exceed the average of the experiment. This research is a basis for improving and selecting valuable, stable genotypes for future cultivation.</em></p> Dorin RECHITEAN Cristian BOSTAN Christianna ISTRATE–SCHILLER Nicolae Marinel HORABLAGA Maria–Despina BORDEAN Petru RAIN Luminita COJOCARIU Copyright (c) 2022 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 2 99 106 10.58509/lssd.v3i2.214 FEED QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY IN SOME VARIETIES OF ITALIAN RYEGRASS- LOLIUM MULTIFLORUM LAM. http://lssd-journal.com/index.php/lssd/article/view/215 <p><em>The Italian </em>ryegrass<em> (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) provide a large amount of feed per surface unit due to its high productivity. Due to its wide use, a number of varieties are found on the market, the farmer being put in the situation to choose between those varieties that best meet the needs of his own farm. In this context, the paper aims to evaluate the production capacity at anthesis and the content of feed in protein and fiber in two vegetation phenophases in three varieties of Italian </em>ryegrass<em>. Three varieties were used as biological material; two tetraploids (Linos and Ivan) and one diploid variety (Sprint), grown under the conditions of Agricultural Research and Development Station Lovrin, Romania. According to the research, the tetraploid varieties Linos and Ivan are more productive than the diploid variety Sprint. The Linos variety behaved the best, which in the anthesis phenophase (BBCH65) recorded a production of 92 t.ha<sup>-1</sup>, with the feed containing 8.7 % protein and 36 % fiber. Regarding the protein and fiber content, the varieties analyzed are grouped according to the harvesting phase: BBCH49 and BBCH65. The highest content in the protein was found in the BBCH49 phenophase and decreased in the BBCH65 phenophase as the fiber content increased. These results can be useful for the farmer in making decisions on the choice of varieties of Lolium multiflorum Lam. and the harvest period.</em></p> Cristian BOSTAN Dorin RECHITEAN Christianna ISTRATE-SCHILLER Nicolae Marinel HORABLAGA Maria-Despina BORDEAN Adina HORABLAGA Natasa BOSTAN PINISOARA Luminita COJOCARIU Copyright (c) 2022 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 2 107 113 10.58509/lssd.v3i2.215