LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT <h2>About the Journal</h2> <p><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; color: #333333;">Life Science and Sustainable Development</strong><span style="color: #333333;"> is an Open Access Journal owned by Lovrin Agricultural Research and Development Station, which offers support for quick publication of original and review articles in extenso and summary.</span></p> <p>Our Journal, <strong>Life Science and Sustainable Development</strong> includes original papers (abstract and full text) and reviews on Agriculture in general from all around the world.</p> <p>Abbreviation: LSSD</p> <p>ISSN 2734 - 5068</p> <p>ISSN-L 2734 - 5068</p> <p>Country of Publication: Romania</p> <p>Publisher: Lovrin, Romania</p> <p>Language: English</p> <p>Number of issues/year: 2</p> <p>Papers will be published in the <strong>Life Science and Sustainable Development</strong> in electronic format.</p> <p> </p> Lovrin Agricultural Research and Development Station en-US LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2734-5068 THE INFLUENCE OF FOLIAR FERTILIZATION ON THE YIELD AND QUALITY TO SOYBEAN <p><em>This experiment investigated the effect of foliar fertilization on yield components, yield and protein content to 75 soybean genotypes from four maturity groups. The experiment took place within the Soybean Breeding Laboratory at Research and Development Station for Agriculture Turda (RDSA Turda) over the course of two years (2020, 2021). The experimental design was a complete randomized block with three replications in which three variants of fertilization were analyzed, and the application of foliar fertilizers was carried out in different stages of soybean vegetation. In general, if we refer to the yield, it is observed that most of the genotypes that reacted favorably to the application of foliar fertilization are with the Ff<sub>1</sub> variant, on the other hand, for the protein content, it seems that the Ff<sub>2</sub> foliar fertilization variant causes an increase in protein in most of the genotypes that they had a favorable reaction to foliar fertilization. Regarding the component elements of yield, the application of foliar fertilization variants does not greatly contribute to increasing their number, being directly related to the genotype but also the interaction between environment x genotype.</em></p> Adrian NEGREA Raluca REZI Camelia URDA Teodor RUSU Alin POPA Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 2 1 7 10.58509/lssd.v4i2.245 RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF THE DENSITY AND THE HYBRID USED IN DETERMINING THE YIELD OF GRAIN SORGHUM GROWN IN THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF SOUTHEASTERN ROMANIA <p><em>This paper aims to provide information on the experience with grain sorghum hybrids grown in the climatic and pedological conditions of the Brăila Agricultural Research and Development Station. This experience consisted of the use of eight commercial grain sorghum hybrids. They were the following: Es Alize, Es Shamal, Es Arabesk, Es Armorik, Anggy, Ggustav, Bellugga and Huggo. They were grown in two densities: Density 1- 22 germinating seeds/m² and Density 2- 250 germinating seeds/m². From a climatic point of view, the year 2023 proved to be a favorable one for the sorghum culture, thus during its vegetation period it benefited from a greater amount of precipitation compared to the multiannual average and from the temperature point of view it was warmer than multiyear. The sorghum hybrids used were very productive, thus the average of the experience was 7.57 t/ha.</em></p> Florin MOCANU Costica CIONTU Daniela TRIFAN Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 2 8 12 10.58509/lssd.v4i2.246 ANALYSIS OF SOME BIOMETRIC PARAMETERS IN THE CHARACTERIZATION OF CORN EAR <p><em>The study analyzed the variation of some biometric parameters in corn ears, the 'Oana' hybrid. The experiment was carried out within ARDS Lovrin, under non-irrigated crop system conditions. The ear samples were harvested at physiological maturity. The analyzed parameters were represented by: ear length (EL), row number (RN), grains number on rows (GNR), ear weight (CW), grains weight (GW) and cob weight (CW). </em><em>Ear length varied between EL = 18.00 – 20.75±0.41 cm; row number presented values between RN = 16.00 – 16.50±0.11; grains number on rows presented values between GNR = 43.75 – 49.25±0.76; ear weight presented the values EW = 0.86 – 1.04±0.03 kg; grains weight varied between GW = 0.73 – 0.87±0.03 kg; cob weight varied between CW = 0.13 - 0.17±0.01 kg. The Anova test confirmed the presence of variance and the statistical reliability of the recorded data (F calculated &gt; F crit, p&lt;0.001; Alpha = 0.001). High variability was recorded in the case of cob weight (CV=10.1184), and low variability in the case of row number (CV=1.5971). Intermediate values were recorded for the other analyzed parameters, respectively CV = 4.0769 for GNR, CV = 5.3064 for EL, CV = 7.6181 for GW, respectively CV = 7.9539 for EW. Correlation of varying intensity levels was recorded between analyzed parameters (e.g. r=0.991 between EW and GW; r=0.949 between EL and GNR; r=0.845 between CW and EW). The regression analysis facilitated the finding of equations and graphic models that described the variation of EW and GW in relation to EL and RN parameters, under statistical safety conditions (R<sup>2</sup>=0.982 in the case of EW; R<sup>2</sup>=0.974 in the case of GW). From the equations obtained (values of the coefficients) as well as from the graphic models, it was found that the EL parameter had a determining influence (compared to RN) in the variation of the EW and GW parameters.</em></p> Alina Laura AGAPIE Florin SALA Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 2 13 18 10.58509/lssd.v4i2.247 GRAINS MOISTURE VARIATION IN FIELD PEAS IN RELATION TO FERTILIZATION <p><em>The study evaluated the moisture content of field pea’s grains at the time of harvest, in relation to mineral fertilization. The field researches took place within ARDS Lovrin. The field pea, 'Boxer' variety, was cultivated in non-irrigated conditions, on a chernozem type soil. Mineral fertilization was done with nitrogen (0, 25, 75 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> a.s.; a.s. – active substance), phosphorus (0, 80 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> a.s.) and potassium (0, 40, 80, 120 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> a.s.). The combination of the three fertilizers resulted in 16 fertilization options (V1 to V16). At the moment of physiological maturity, BBCH code 9, the plants on the experimental variants were harvested. On pea grains samples, on the experimental variants, the humidity (M, %) was determined with the Wile 200 – Granit device. The moisture values varied between 13.70% (V3) and 17.90% (V13). The grain moisture values showed a normal distribution (r = 0.975). Compared to the average value (MAvg = 16.36%), higher values were recorded for variants V1, V4, V7, V9, V11, V12, V13, V14. The cluster analysis facilitated the generation of a dendrogram in which the variants were grouped based on Euclidean distances (Coph. corr. = 0.739). A cluster C1 included the variants with low moisture content, within which a high level of similarity was recorded between V5 and V8 (SDI = 0.00). Within cluster C2, the variants with higher moisture content were grouped, and a high level of similarity was recorded between variants V4 and V11 (SDI = 0.00). The model in the form of equations and graphic models resulted from the regression analysis, which described the variation of grain moisture depending on the applied fertilizers. Divergent action was recorded between nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively potassium in relation to grain moisture values.</em></p> Andreea Lidia JURJESCU Florin SALA Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 2 19 26 10.58509/lssd.v4i2.248 THE DIVERSITY OF USEFUL ARTHROPODS IN TWO WHEAT AGROECOSYSTEMS FROM TRANSYLVANIAN PLAIN <p><em>The increase in agricultural production is conditioned by several factors, among which plant protection against pests plays a very important role. Alongside chemical methods, biological control methods against harmful organisms in crops have recently become widespread, and one of these methods is the use of useful insects (predators and parasites). Therefore, during 2016-2018, a study was conducted on monitoring the useful entomofauna in the culture of autumn wheat, in two types of agroecosystems, at Turda and Bolduț, within the Turda Research and Development Station for Agriculture. The two locations are quite close in terms of distance, but very different in terms of territorial organization, with the Bolduț farm being surrounded by a network of agroforestry shelterbelts. In Turda, the plots are located in open field conditions and are protected by rare spontaneous marginal strips. The research aimed to evaluate the diversity of useful arthropod fauna in the two agrobiocenoses, as well as the influence of the agroecosystem on these insects. Following the observations, it can be stated that the entomophagous arthropods identified in the two agroecosystems differ only in terms of ecological indicators, belonging to the same groups of entomophages, their diversity being closely related to climatic conditions, applied technology, but also to the type of agroecosystem.</em></p> Ana Maria VALEAN Adina TARAU Ioana CRISAN Laura SOPTEREAN Loredana SUCIU Emanuela FILIP Alin POPA Adrian NEGREA Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 2 27 35 10.58509/lssd.v4i2.250 THE INFLUENCE OF VARIETIES, FOLIAR FERTILIZATION AND BIOSTIMULATOR ON TRITICALE PRODUCTION IN NORD-WESTERN ROMANIA <p><em>Triticale (Triticosecale Wittmack) are a hybrid created by man by crossing two species, namely Triticum aestivum and Secale cereale. They adopted the good ability to adapt to climatic conditions, high resistance to plant diseases and the utilization of low fertility soils from Secale cereale and the high production capacity and high protein content from Triticum aestivum. In general, triticale is used in feeding animals in different forms (concentrated fodder, straw, silage, pasture), especially in feeding pigs and birds. More recently, it was discovered that this plant has several properties, being similar to wheat. It is also used in the bioethanol, alcohol, cellulose industry and even in aquaculture. Fertilization is one of the most important in the cultivation technology of this plant, ensuring production increases both quantitatively and qualitatively. The experiment is located in the year 2021-2022, in northwest Romania, in Livada, Satu Mare county on a typical preluvosol with an acidic reaction, with a pH of 5.19 in the arable layer. It is placed after the method of subdivided plots, being an experiment with three experimental factors, of which only two factors were studied, the variety and fertilization and their influence on triticale production. Due to the severe climatic conditions, with high temperatures and lack of precipitation, additional fertilization with foliar fertilizer and biostimulator recorded significantly negative differences in production. It was found that the best fertilization option during that testing period was the basic fertilization of the soil with complex fertilizers in the fall and nitrogen-based fertilizers in the springtime.</em></p> Beniamin-Emanuel ANDRAS Balazs ACS Patrick-Andrei URSAN Cecilia BANATEANU Ionut RACZ Marcel DUDA Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 2 36 43 10.58509/lssd.v4i2.261 NITROGEN VARIABLE RATE INFLUENCE ON PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS IN WHEAT FLAG LEAF <p><em>The study evaluated the variation of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll, carotenoids) in wheat flag leaves in relation to the nitrogen variation rate. The PG102 winter wheat variety was cultivated, in non-irrigated conditions, on a chernozem type soil. Nitrogen was applied in doses of 0 - 280 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> a.s., in a variation rate of 40 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> a.s. (active substances). The field experiments took place in ULS "King Mihai I" from Timisoara, Romania. At the time of flowering (BBCH code 6), random samples of flag leaves were taken on each experimental variant. The chlorophyll content (Chl) varied between Chl = 43.73±1.04 (V1) and Chl = 58.92±1.21 (V6). The carotenoid content (Car) varied between Car = 10.12±0.59 (V1) and Car = 21.56±0.49 (V6).</em><em> Based on the Chl and Car values, the Chl/Car and Car/Chl ratios were calculated for each experimental variant. According to Kruskal-Wallis test, resulted significant difference between sample medians (p (same) = 1.56E-05 in case of Chl data series; p (same) = 2.616E-09 in case of Car data series). The variation of Chl and Car pigments in relation to nitrogen (N) was described by polynomial equations of the 3rd degree, under statistical safety conditions (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.981 in the case of Chl; R<sup>2 </sup>= 0.986 in the case of Car; p&lt;0.001). The variation of Car in relation to Chl was described by a polynomial equation of degree 3 (R<sup>2 </sup>= 0.978, p&lt;0.001).</em></p> Cosmin GHERBAN Florin SALA Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 2 44 51 10.58509/lssd.v4i2.262 IMAGING ANALYSIS IN AGRICULTURAL LAND SURFACE CHARACTERIZATION - CASE STUDY ON WHEAT STUBBLE <p><em>The study used imaging analysis (UAV images) to analyze and characterize an agricultural land area resulting from the harvest of the wheat crop. The researches were carried out in the framework of ARDS Lovrin, agricultural year 2021-2022. The agricultural land was worked with a disk, and the vegetable remains (straw, stubble) were partially incorporated into the soil. The images were taken with the drone (DJI Phantom 4) at variable heights, between H = 0.5 m and H = 50 m from the ground level (19 series of images from variable heights). The analysis of the images resulted in values in the RGB color system. Normalized values (rgb) and NDI and INT indices were calculated. </em><em>The color parameter R (red) varied between R = 77.36 – 89.14±0.71, the color parameter G (green) varied between G = 71.29 – 81.99±0.60, and the color parameter B (blue) varied between B = 71.42 – 79.29±0.47. The values of the calculated indices varied between NDI = 0.040 – 0.048±0.0007, respectively INT = 73.357 – 83.217±0.582. Correlations of varying levels of intensity were recorded between color parameters, calculated indies and image retrieval height. High variability was recorded in the case of the NDI index (CV = 7.3156), and low value in the case of the normalized value g (CV = 0.4443). Polynomial equations described the variation of some color parameters in relation to the image retrieval height (p&lt;0.001). The variation of the NDI index in relation to the image acquisition height was described by a spline model, under statistical safety conditions ( ). Associated with the image retrieval height, the NDI index presented four ranges of values, respectively uniform values on the 0.5 - 1 m height interval, and on the 25 - 50 m height interval; variation of 0.001 units on the height interval 2 - 8 m, and high variability on the height interval 9 - 20 m.</em></p> Ciprian BUZNA Marinel Nicolae HORABLAGA Florin SALA Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 2 52 59 10.58509/lssd.v4i2.267 THE RESPONSE OF SOME MAIZE HYBRIDS AT DIFFERENT SOWING SEASON IN THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF THE TRANSYLVANIA PLATEAU <p><em>In Romania, maize is one of the most important crops, it is cultivated on around 2.5 million hectares, which remained the most important crop with a share of 47.6% of the area cultivated for cereals and 30% of the overall area cultivated. Climatic conditions are the main factors that determine the production of a crop, this fact being also observed in the results obtained in the period 2021-2022, the difference between the two years of research being particularly given by the precipitation during the growing season. The maize crop was affected significantly by drought and high temperatures from a climatic perspective, both experimental years were considered less favorable for maize. Advancing the sowing date in order to avoid high temperatures as well as the water deficit during the reproduction period did not have the expected results against production obtained after sowing the crop earlier was reduced by 1648 kg/ha compared to the one obtained in the sowing season considered optimal for the Transylvanian Plateau this difference being statistically assured as very significant negative.</em></p> Ovidiu Adrian CECLAN Alin POPA Alina SIMON Felicia CHETAN Marius BARDAS Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 2 60 65 10.58509/lssd.v4i2.268 INVESTIGATION OF GRASSLANDS IN THE MOUNTAIN AREA THROUGH OPEN SOURCE SOLUTIONS. CASE STUDY <p><em>The grasslands in the mountainous area of Romania are located in places that are difficult to access and therefore difficult to investigate through field studies; furthermore, the data collected in this way are punctual. As an alternative solution, there is the possibility of accessing Open Source data and software through which scientific information can be extracted from different spheres of research and continuous images can be obtained, over the entire surface of interest. In this context, the purpose of the research was to apply Open Source solutions for extracting "basic" information (location, delimitation and framing in the area, relief, geology, soils and so on) for the Ps Baru grassland, in the Tulişa mountains. The workflow was applied with Open Source software and data, taken from profile platforms and can be extended for any grasslands, regardless of their location or size. As a result of the research, it was found that: the grassland is located in the Tulişa Mountains, has an area of 309 ha and is surrounded by forest, which can be interpreted as an alarm signal about the risk of afforestation to which it is subjected. The grassland is located between 1200 - 1600 m altitude, and the relief is fragmented by the valleys of some rivers. Exploitation roads are present on the counter lines. Based on the longitudinal and transversal profiles, but also through the analysis of the generated relief maps, it was observed that the land slopes from the southwest to the northeast. In the subsoil of the analyzed grassland, the Tulişa Series and the Sebeş Series are predominantly present, and from a pedological aspect, two types of soil predominate, respectively districambosol and rendzin, on smaller surfaces. The use of Open Source data, for the characterization of grassland surfaces, offers a series of advantages: the possibility of using data sets of different types based on the complex characterization of the investigated surface can be done; free use of programs and data; the possibility of extracting the data without going to the field.</em></p> Monica SFIRCOCI Loredana COPACEAN Luminita COJOCARIU Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 2 66 71 10.58509/lssd.v4i2.272 TRANSFORMATION OF GRASSLANDS INTO FORESTS IN BANAT MOUNTAINS, BETWEEN 1990 AND 2023 <p><em>The semi-natural grasslands on the Romanian territory and essentially the Banat Mountains, generally framed by forest areas, over time, can be transformed into forests by the lack of adequate management (grazing, care work) with a significant impact on the rural economy. Having access to geospatial resources and techniques specific to Geographic Information Systems (GIS), this study investigated the transformation of grasslands into forests in the Banat Mountains over a period of over 30 years and their arrangement on altitude steps. The research methodology was carried out in four stages: localization and delimitation of the area of interest; analysis of land use, especially of the grassland areas; analysis of forested grasslands in territorial profile and in altitudinal profile. ArcGIS 10.4 software was used to apply the workflow. Research results show that grasslands undergo a series of transformations as a result of the post-communist socio-political situation. Most of the lost grassland areas, namely an area of 8,237 ha was wooded and therefore passed to forests, a phenomenon that occurred in all component subareas, in different proportions. The analysis of grassland afforestation at ATU level showed that the largest wooded areas were in Sicheviţa ATU (991 ha). On the altitude gradient 57% (4,707 ha) are located below the altitude of 500 m, 24%, between 501 – 700 m, respectively 12%, between 701 – 900 m. At higher altitudes grassland afforestation occurs to a lesser extent, given the smaller grassland areas. Generally, afforestation of grasslands occurs through their abandonment, expressed by the lack of maintenance and exploitation works</em>.</p> Marinel HORABLAGA Luminita COJOCARIU Cristian BOSTAN Loredana COPACEAN Christianna ISTRATE–SCHILLER Dorin RECHITEAN Rebeca TOMUTA Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 2 72 79 10.58509/lssd.v4i2.273 BIOMETRIC AND PRODUCTION CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME LOTUS CORNICULATUS L. GENOTYPES <p><em>The Lotus corniculatus </em>L<em>. species is important from the point of view of its nutritional quality, used as animal feed, contributing to increased lactation in ruminants. It is also used due to its high adaptation to harsh weather conditions and resistance to acidic and arid soils, in this sense it is introduced for soil remediation and cover crop in orchards due to its nitrogen-fixing capacity. The study was conducted in the research fields of ARDS Lovrin, Romania within the laboratory for the improvement of fodder and protein plants, during 2022-2023. The purpose of the study is represented by 10 Birdsfoot Trefoil genotypes harvested from the wild flora in the plain area of Banat, Romania, on which were made quantitative measurements and determinations, of production evaluating the following characters: plant size, number of flowers, number of pods, number of seeds/pods. The results obtained from these determinations have highlighted four valuable genotypes that can be introduced in the breeding process as potential genitors for the creation of new varieties. Analysis of the studied genotypes shows that the number of flowers varies between 200 and 580 from a surface of 1 square meter, and the number of pods per square meter is between 70 and 2900, according to the study, the length of the pods is between 18.75 and 30.66 mm, the average number of seeds/pods differs between 18.3 and 22.90, and the length of the plant varies between 20 and 45 cm. The statistical analysis and interpretation of the results highlights genotypes Lc119, Lc108, Lc73 and Lc62 in terms of analyzed productivity characteristics.</em></p> Christianna ISTRATE – SCHILLER Cristian BOSTAN Nicolae Marinel HORABLAGA Luminita COJOCARIU Dorin RECHITEAN Paul – Manuel ISTRATE Petru RAIN Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 2 80 85 10.58509/lssd.v4i2.274 RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF SOME TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS ON PRODUCTION IN PLASTIC TUNNEL TOMATO CULTIVATION <p><em>Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) are native to Central and South America. The comparative experiments with the two tomato varieties took place in the period 2022-2023 and were organized in a 160 m<sup>2 </sup>plastic tunnel from the Lovrin Research and Development Station, Timiș County, Romania. The experimental variants were placed according to the model of bifactorial experiments with subdivided plots, in 3 repetitions, namely: factor A (genetic factor – variety) with two gradations: a<sub>1 </sub>– 'Elisabeta' and a<sub>2</sub> – 'Ruxandra', respectively factor B (technological factor) with two gradations: b<sub>1</sub> – unmulched and b<sub>2</sub> – mulched. To evaluate the production capacity, observations were made at the time of harvesting in terms of the number of fruits in each inflorescence and fruit weight, using current work techniques and precision equipment. The combined influence of genetic and technological factors highlights a distinctly significant difference in the average production per plant in the case of the tomato variety 'Ruxandra' grown on soil mulched with polyethylene film in the plastic tunnel. Soil mulching, as an experimental technological factor, causes a 20-25% increase in production, compared to the control variant.</em></p> Gheorghe POSTA Nicolae Marinel HORABLAGA Ciprian Calin BUZNA Petru RAIN Cristian Andrei IUHASZ Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 2 86 93 10.58509/lssd.v4i2.276 THE BEHAVIOR OF SOME MAIZE HYBRIDS CREATED AT ARDS TURDA IN TWO ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS: TURDA AND LOVRIN <p><em>Maize is one of the main crop plants worldwide and nationally, so the improvement of this plant and the creation of new superior productive and adaptive hybrids is an activity of particular importance. In order to promote a hybrid to be registered, it must be tested in several ecological conditions, precisely for this reason, the hybrids created at ARDS Turda are also tested in other locations, one of them being the ARDS Lovrin experimental fields. 24 maize hybrids were tested in the two research stations regarding the yield, thousand kernel weight (TKW) and two vegetative traits of agronomic interest, the plant and ear height.</em> <em>Differences were reported between the two locations, but they were statistically insignificant.</em> <em>Based on the data obtained, 4 maize hybrids were noted, that will be further analyzed regarding several traits, so that one or two will be proposed for registration. These hybrids obtained average yields of over 9,000 kg/ha in both locations, being also noted for their high TKW and uniformity of plant and ear height.</em></p> Roxana CALUGAR Andrei VARGA Alina Laura AGAPIE Loredana Ancuta CECLAN Carmen Daniela VANA Felicia CHETAN Nicolae TRITEAN Copyright (c) 2023 LIFE SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2024-01-02 2024-01-02 4 2 94 98 10.58509/lssd.v4i2.271